Ingredients & Terms

Did you see an ingredient or a term on a product that you weren’t sure what it meant or how it could be used? Are you simply curious as to what certain words or phrases mean? You use our products; we want you to understand what you’re using.

A

Allantoin (Ureidohydantoin – Comfrey)
A non-toxic crystal created by the oxidation of uric acid. Has the ability to help heal wounds, sores and stimulate the growth of healthy tissue. Allantoin is a skin softener and an anti-irritant, which inhibits allergic-type responses.

Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)
Aloe vera is composed of water, the enzymes catalase and cellulose, minerals, calcium, aluminum, iron, zinc, magnesium, sodium, 20 amino acids and carbohydrates. Aloe vera also contains the “youth mineral” potassium. Aloe vera benefits dry and cracked skin, burns, blisters, frostbite, insect bites, and allergic reactions. Aloe vera is also a great skin moisturizer that helps to keep skin supple by bringing oxygen to the cells, and therefore increasing the synthesis and strength of skin tissue. It is clinically proven that Aloe vera improves the skin’s ability to hydrate itself, aids in the removal of dead skin cells and has an effective penetrating ability that helps transport healthy substances through the skin.

Aloe Vera Oil
Aloe Vera Oil is produced by steeping aloe vera leaves into a carrier oil (i.e. coconut oil, soybean oil, etc.) Research has shown that aloe vera gel penetrates human skin almost four times faster than water. Because of its ability to penetrate so quickly, it easily softens and soothes the skin. When combined with other healing agents, aloe vera helps these substances penetrate the skin easily carrying them to the deeper layers of the skin. Aloe vera is believed to have an anti-aging effect on skin.

Amino Acids
Amino acids are what the body uses to construct proteins; they are said to penetrate the skin. Proteins consist of giant chains of amino acids, the building blocks of life. The amino acid chains are joined chemically by a peptide bond. Plant proteins have excellent skin compatibility and deposit a protective film on the skin and hair that smooths and moisturizes.

Anise (Pimpinella anisum)
Anise possesses the distinctive aroma of black licorice. It is a warm, sweet scent, helpful in relaxing the senses; also used to combat colic and rheumatism.

Apricot Kernel Oil (Prunus armeniaca)
Apricot kernel oil comes from the large pits of the apricot fruit. Extremely nourishing to the skin and excellent around the eyes and neck, apricot kernel oil is an emollient. This light skin care oil is non-greasy & absorbs quickly into the skin. It also contains oleic & linoleic acids, and is rich in vitamins A, D & E. Apricot kernel oil is a good natural skin care oil for dry, mature and sensitive skin. It is also said to aid in the repair of skin elasticity.AntifungalThe characteristic of being able to destroy fungi (fungus) or inhibit their growth.AntioxidantA substance that inhibits oxygen or reactions promoted by oxygen, peroxides or free radicals.

Argan oil
Argan oil is a powerful antioxidant due to high levels of tocopherols (vitamin E). It is also rich in phenols, phenolic acid, carotenes, squalene, and essential fatty acids. The oil is pressed from the roasted nut of the ancient Argan tree. Argan oil produced from these kernels is valued for its nutritive, cosmetic and numerous medicinal properties.

Aromatherapy (therapeutic)
The use of essential oils to achieve therapeutic health benefits using highly concentrated extracts which are derived from varying parts of plants. They contain the plants active lifelike properties and are said to be the “blood” of the plant. The aroma affects the emotions and sense of well-being through the sense of smell.

Ascorbic Acid
Also known as Vitamin C. Scientific data has shown that Vitamin C helps increase the amount of collagen production in the skin. Vitamin C is also used to prevent collagen break down and help combat the signs of aging. By increasing the amount of collagen in the skin, the fine lines will be reduced. As an antioxidant, it is believed to remove the free radicals that cells produce. It is also a natural topical anti-inflammatory that helps in reversing some of the effects of sun damage to the skin.

Ascorbyl Palmitate (Palmitic acid ester – Vitamin C Ester)
A salt of ascorbic acid. It is used as a preservative and antioxidant to prevent rancidity.

Astringent
Technically speaking, an astringent is a chemical compound that tends to shrink or constrict body tissues. However, the term is often used interchangeably with toner. Used to firm and tone the skin, an astringent tightens the pores and creates a protective layer of firm tissue between the under layers of skin and the elements.

Avocado Oil (Persea americana)
Avocado oil is made from the pulp of the avocado fruit. It is a rich, thick oil that is full of nutritive and therapeutic components. It contains vitamins A, C, D and E, proteins, beta-carotene, lecithin, fatty acids and the “youth mineral” potassium. It is a very penetrating and moisturizing oil that can be used to treat sun-damaged, dehydrated, and under-nourished skin. May also help regenerate skin cells. The sterolins (plant steroids) in avocado oil have been found to diminish age spots.

B

Babassu Nut Oil
Typically produced in Brazil (but also in other South American countries), babassu oil is a type of yellowish colored palm oil from the meat of Brazil nuts. It is solid at room temperature and has a long shelf life. Babassu oil melts easily into the skin and is often used in lotions, lip balms and hair care products. High in protein, vitamins and minerals, Babassu is also said to be an intensive moisturizer for severely dry skin, helping to replenish skin cells and prevent deterioration of skin cells and tissues.

Beeswax (Apis mellifera)
Beeswax comes from the honeycomb of virgin bees. Beeswax is produced by glands on the underside of a bee’s abdomen. The glands produce liquid wax which sets into little flakes of solid wax about the size of a pinhead on contact with the air. The composition of beeswax is complex and contains nearly 300 components, including hydrocarbons, straight-chain monohydric alcohols, acids, hydroxy acids, and oils. Beeswax is used as an emulsifier and stiffener.

Behentrimonium methosulfate (BTMS)
Behentrimonium is a quaternary ammonium salt that is used as a conditioning agent. It is extracted from rapeseed oil and is touted to be a mild detangler. Also an antistatic agent, frequent use will not cause build-up on the hair. It is not a sulfate.

Behenyl Alcohol
A natural fatty alcohol in the form of a white, waxy solid, also known as dacosanol. It is an emulsifier that keeps the oil and liquid parts of a solution from separating.

Beta carotene
Also known as pro-Vitamin A. It is found in plants and many animal tissues and is what causes carrots to have their orange tint. It is also used as a coloring agent in several cosmetics. It is a precursor to Vitamin A.

Biotin
One of the water-soluble B family vitamins, biotin promotes hair growth, protects against dryness and is involved in the biosynthesis of unsaturated fats. It also increases the elasticity of the hair’s cortex, preventing breakage.

Black Seed Oil (Unrefined)
Derived by pressing the seeds of the Nigella Sativa plant, this nutrient-rich oil has been used for hundreds of years in the Middle East and South Asia as a natural remedy for a variety of ailments. The seeds are also commonly referred to as black cumin. Black seed oil has been known to relieve allergy symptoms and skin conditions, and is an effective anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory remedy. Historically, many used Black Seed on the skin to strengthen the immune system, prevent external infections, increase blood circulation and achieve a smooth, even complexion.

Borage Oil (Borago officinalis)
Obtained from the seed of Borago officinalis, which grows abundantly in the Mediterranean region, Central Europe and Asia, borage oil has an extremely high gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) content. GLA is vital for the synthesis of prostaglandin, an important function in the body, especially the skin. Borage oil also has the highest known content of essential unsaturated fatty acids. These are great skin conditioners. They regulate the hydration of the skin and are humectants.

Botanical oils (also known as whole plant oils)
Any oils extracted from a plant. They are often an excellent source of moisture and nourishment for the skin and hair. Botanical oils can be used as carrier oils to dilute essential oils.

Brown Sugar (Sucrose)
This moist, Fine Grain Brown Sugar has a high content of natural molasses. It is a perfect sugar to use for body scrub and its natural brown color lends itself to the earthy, natural appearance of any scrub.

C

Candelilla Wax (Euphorbia antisyphilitica)
Taken from the candelilla plant, a desert shrub that is native to Mexico and Texas, it is used as a thickener in products.

Canola Oil
This is a nourishing, conditioning, and penetrating natural massage oil for all skin types. It is high in fatty acids and promotes healthy skin. Contains vitamins and minerals to soften the skin and hair.

Caprylic/Capric Triglyceride
This is an oily liquid made from coconut oil and glycerin. In cosmetics and personal care products, it slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface.

Caprylyl Glycol
A mild humectant and skin emollient with a unique skin feel. Additionally, it can contribute to the antimicrobial stability of cosmetics formulations and improve the effectiveness of traditional cosmetic preservatives. Glycols are known to be antimicrobial and show antimicrobial efficacy against typical germs found in cosmetic formulations.

Carbomer
Carbomer is a term used for a series of polymers primarily made from acrylic acid. Carbomers help to distribute or suspend an insoluble solid in a liquid. They are also used to keep emulsions from separating into their oil and liquid components.

Carrier Oil
A carrier oil is a vegetable oil derived from the fatty portion of a plant; usually from the seeds, kernels or nuts.

Carrot oil
Rich in beta carotene, vitamins A & E, and pro-vitamin A which help heal dry, chapped, cracked skin, carrot oil helps to balance the moisture in our skin and condition the hair. It is also a good moisturizer for the face.

Castile Soap
Castile soap was originally 100% olive oil soap. It got its name from the Castile region in Spain. It is an extremely mild liquid with a watery consistency, made from olive oil and sodium hydroxide.

Castor Bean Oil
Natural castor bean oil is rich in fatty acids that are soothing, lubricating and readily absorbed into the skin. It moisturizes by acting as a humectant that attracts and locks moisture into the skin.

Castor Oil (Ricinus communis)
Castor oil is extracted from the seeds of the castor plant. Commonly used commercially in lipsticks in the United States, castor oil creates a protective barrier on the skin and is soothing. Castor oil is part alcohol and part oil. It is mainly composed of ricinoleic acid (87%), a fatty acid with an unusual molecular structure. This natural skin care oil is rich in fatty acids that are soothing, lubricating, and readily absorbed into the skin. It moisturizes by acting as a humectant that attracts and locks moisture into the skin.

Cellulose
A natural polysaccharide derived from plant fibers.

Cetyl Alcohol
Cetyl alcohol is a long chain organic alcohol. A white, waxy solid, it is often serves as an emulsion stabilizer, to increase viscosity and boost foam in cosmetic preparations.

Cetearyl Alcohol
A white, waxy solid, cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol are the two major components of Cetearyl Alcohol. These ingredients are all fatty alcohols and are widely used in cosmetics and personal care products.

Chamomile (Matricaria recutita)
Long known for its calming, sedating effects, it makes a beautiful hair rinse for blond hair as well as providing calming anti-inflammatory effects for sensitive skin.

Cinnamon Leaf
Cinnamon has a warm, spicy scent and is used to relieve stress and energize the senses. It has antibiotic and astringent properties.

Citric Acid
Widely used in the cosmetic industry, citric acid is derived from citrus fruits by fermentation of their crude sugars. It is used as a preservative, as well as to adjust acid-alkali balance. Citric acid is said to have antioxidant and toning properties. Citric acid is one of the alpha-hydroxy acids. AHA’s are used not only to reduce wrinkles but also to brighten your skin.

Cocamidopropyl Betaine
Also known as Coco Betaine, Cocomidopropyl Betaine is a mild cleansing and foaming agent. It is derived from the natural fatty acids of coconut oil and sugar. It is completely biodegradable, environmentally safe, and pH-neutral.

Cocoa Butter (Theobroma cacao)
Cocoa butter is the solid fat expressed from the roasted seed of the cocoa seed or bean. This natural body butter is an excellent all-over body moisturizer that is an emollient to the skin. It is good for all skin types to soothe and soften dry skin, act as a skin rejuvenator, and provide a protective layer on the skin to lock in natural moisture.

Coconut Oil, Extra Virgin (Cocos nucifera)
Coconut oil is expressed from coconut kernels. Coconut is solid at temperatures below 76 degrees. Extra Virgin Coconut oil is the premium of coconut oils, with a fresh coconut scent. Virgin coconut oil is cold-pressed, pure, natural, and unrefined. It is used for aromatherapy in soap, body/massage oil, and shampoo moisturizer, adding sheen and preventing dry hair, or as a nail and cuticle treatment.

Cold Pressed
A method of mechanical extraction where heat is reduced and minimized throughout the batching of the raw material. This helps the oil maintain its original state, constituents, and depth. Temperatures are rigorously controlled to ensure that it does not exceed 80-90 degrees Fahrenheit. Although not a practical method of extraction for all vegetable oils on the market it is highly regarded as the extraction method of choice.

Colloidal oatmeal
Also known by its Genus Species name, Avena sativa L., colloidal oatmeal helps smooth and comfort itchy, dry skin. Colloidal oatmeal is simply oats ground into an extremely fine powder. When added to bathwater, it creates a milky dispersion that prevents the oatmeal from settling rapidly. Colloidal oatmeal works great to help relieve dry skin patches (eczema), psoriasis, acne, bug bites, sunburns, and other minor skin irritations. It also helps relieve chicken pox, poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac, and other itching rashes.

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)
A vegetable used for its cooling and astringent properties.

Cyclomethicone
A silicon-based cyclic compound, cyclopentasiloxane is a colorless, odorless, transparent, non-greasy, non-toxic silicone fluid. It is one of many types of silicones known for their ability to lubricate and waterproof. Being a water-thin fluid, it quickly evaporates without greasy residue and leaves the skin feeling silky.

D

Dead Sea Salts
These mineral-rich salts aid in skin healing, reverse signs of aging, and help open pores for easier breathing.

Dermis (also called the cutis)
The layer of the skin just beneath the epidermis.

Dimethicone
Dimethicones are non-toxic, hypoallergenic, unmodified silicones, which form a protective layer on the skin that helps retain natural moisture, thus preventing transdermal water loss. This layer must be renewed as the skin sloughs off. Dimethicones stay on or near the surface of the skin without getting below it.

E

Emollient
Ingredient that makes soft or supple; soothing, especially to the skin.

Emu Oil
Premium oil with intense moisturizing properties that is excellent for all skin types, since it is non-comedogenic and hypoallergenic. Emu oil quickly penetrates multiple layers of skin and is known for providing ‘quick moisture’.

Epsom Salt (Magnesium Sulfate)
Epsom salts are made up of a naturally occurring mineral that is found in water. It has been used for many, many years to relieve stress, flush toxins from the body, reduce inflammation and ease pain.

Epidermis
The outer layer of the skin.

Essential Oils
Essential oils are distilled from the leaves, bark, roots and other aromatic portions of a plant. They evaporate and have a concentrated aroma.

Eucalyptus
Eucalyptus is used for reducing fever, healing congestion, reducing airbirne germs and microbes; also good for use in vaporizers.

Evening Primrose (Oenothers bennis)
Evening primrose oil is taken from the seeds of the evening primrose and is full of vitamins and minerals. It also repairs damaged skin, keeps skin healthy, helps repair sun damaged and mature skin.

Expeller pressing
A chemical-free mechanical process that extracts the oil from seeds and nuts. This method of oil extraction is an alternative to the hexane-extraction method used for many conventional oils. The temperature reached during pressing depends on the hardness of the nut or seed. The harder the nut or seed, the more pressure required to extract the oil, which in turn creates more friction and higher heat. There is no external heat applied during expeller pressing.

F

Flax Seed (Linum usitatissimum)
Flaxseed oil is pressed from the seeds of the flax plant. It has a high concentration of omega-3 essential fatty acids. Commonly used for eczema, psoriasis, burns, inflammatory skin and other skin conditions.

Fractionated Coconut Oil
Fractionated coconut oil has been processed or “fractioned” to create a shelf-stable oil, allowing it to remain liquid at room temperature. It then absorbs quickly into the skin without leaving a greasy feeling.

Free radicals
Most of the damage to our skin is caused by a free-radical assault from smoke, pollution and UV rays. Free radicals then turn the oils of our skin rancid, which damages the collagen. Collagen is the protein fibers that serve as the building blocks of our skin. Antioxidants are used in skin care products to neutralize free radicals before they ravage the skin.

G

Glycerin, Kosher Vegetable
Vegetable glycerin is obtained by adding alkalis to fats and fixed oils. A thick liquid that is colorless and sweet tasting, glycerin is a soothing humectant which draws moisture from the air to the skin. Glycerin is an emollient, which makes the skin feel softer and smoother, and reduces rough feeling, cracking and irritation. Vegetable glycerin is non-toxic, non-irritating, and non-allergenic.

Grapefruit Seed Extract (Citrus grandis)
Made from fluid derived from the seeds, light membranes and pulp of the grapefruit, it is considered to be an effective antibiotic and a natural preservative. GSE is antiseptic, non-toxic, and broad-spectrum anti-microbial.

Grapeseed Oil (Vitis vinifera)
Grapeseed oil, made from the seeds of wine producing grapes, is the lightest of oils, and virtually odorless. It contains vitamins, minerals, is high in polyunsaturates and protein. Grapeseed oil is wonderful for use around the eyes and neck. Widely used in hypoallergenic natural products because it does not often cause allergic reactions in the highly allergic, gentle grapeseed oil absorbs quickly into the skin without leaving a greasy feeling.

Green Tea (Camellia sinensis)
Green tea is dried, but not fermented. This helps keep all the beneficial chemicals intact, and helps influence serum concentrations of hormones.

Guar Gum (Cymopsia tetrogonoblbus)
Made from the ground seed tissue of plants cultivated in India, it is used as a thickener and has 5 to 8 times the thickening properties of starch.

H

Hair Follicle
A tube-shaped sheath that surrounds the part of the hair that is under the skin. It is located in the epidermis and the dermis. The hair is nourished by the follicle at its base (this is also where the hair grows).

Hair Shaft
The part of the hair that is visible above the skin.

Hair Erector Muscle
A muscle is connected to each hair follicle and the skin. It contracts in response to cold, fear, etc., resulting in an erect hair and a “goosebump” on the skin.

Hemp Seed Oil (Cannabis sativa)
Hemp seed oil is extracted from the seeds of the Cannabis sativa plant. It has high levels of essential fatty acids, including linolenic acid. High levels of Omega 3, Omega 6, and gamma linolenic acid make this oil an excellent natural emollient and moisturizer. Hemp seed oil is good for repairing and restoring dry and damaged skin and is said to help stimulate cell growth.

High Oleic Safflower Oil
Contains a higher amount of monounsaturated fatty acids – 76% as opposed to 13% compared to regular safflower oil. This makes it less susceptible to oxidation. It is produced from plant sources through traditional methods. It is considered to be hydrating to the skin and non comedogenic.

Honey
Honey is the sweet material taken from the nectar of flowers and manufactured by bees. Honey is full of vitamins, minerals, amino acids and enzymes, has an emollient property, is soothing, and a humectant. Honey is cleansing and antibacterial. Bacteria cannot live in honey, which demonstrates its natural preservative properties. It leaves a micro thin protective film on the skin.

Humectant
A substance that promotes the retention of moisture by drawing moisture from the air and pulling it to the hair or skin.

Hyaluronic Acid (Hyaluronic Acid or Sodium Hyaluronate)
Protective agent naturally found in the extracellular matrix of human tissue. Topically applied hyaluronic acid forms an air permeable layer and penetrates into the dermis, thus boosting the elasticity and hydration of the skin.

Hydrophilic
A substance that has a great affinity, or attraction, to water.

Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil
Hydrogenated vegetable oil is produced by the addition of hydrogen (H2) ions to vegetable oil. Hydrogenation results in the conversion of liquid vegetable oils to solid or semi-solid and slows the loss of water from the skin by forming a barrier on the skin’s surface.

Hydrolyzed Castor Oil
Hydrolyzed castor oil has been turned partly into water through hydrolysis.

Hydrolyzed Silk Amino Acid
Silk is a fiber secreted by silk worms. Liquefied silk creates a mixture of amino acids. Amino acids are what the body uses to build proteins. Silk amino acids are said to penetrate the skin and leave the skin silky smooth.

Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein
A protein from wheat which has been turned partly into water through hydrolysis. Proteins are the nitrogen-carrying constituents of living cells. Protein treatments are said to be beneficial to hair and skin. They add gloss, body and luster to hair. Proteins consist of giant chains of amino acids, the building blocks of life. The amino acid chains are joined chemically by a peptide bond. Plant proteins have excellent skin compatibility and deposit a protective film on the skin and hair for smoothing and moisturizing.

Hydroxyethyl Cellulose
Hydroxyethyl cellulose is a modified fiber component of plants that is used in cosmetics as a thickening agent and to bind other ingredients together.

Hyssop
Used to relieve anxiety, arthritis, asthma, respiratory infections, parasites, fungal infections, and cold and flu symptoms, this fresh-smelling oil also metabolizes fat, increases perspiration, and can help the body detoxify.

I

J

Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) [pronounced Ho Ho’ Ba] Jojoba oil is cold pressed from the nuts of the jojoba tree. Native Americans have been using jojoba for centuries to treat sores, cuts, burns, and for all over skin and hair treatments. Jojoba is technically not an oil, but a liquid wax ester with long unsaturated carbon chains. It resembles human sebum, the natural coating our body produces to protect the skin and keeps it supple. Jojoba contains protein, minerals and a waxy substance that mimics collagen.

Jojoba Wax Beads (Simmondsia chinensis)
A semisolid fraction of jojoba oil used as a gentle natural exfoliate.

K

Kelp (Powdered) – Fucus vesiculosis
Used in lotions for its skin-softening qualities, it has antibacterial, antioxidant, antitumor, and emollient properties.

Kokum Butter (Garcinia Indica)
Kokum butter is obtained from the fruit of the Garcina indica tree grown in India. Kokum butter has excellent emollient properties and high oxidative stability. It is a solid, stable hard butter that melts on contact with skin. It helps reduce degeneration of skin cells and restores skin flexibility.

Kukui Nut (Aleurites moluccana)
Kukui oil is pressed from the nut of the tropical kukui tree, which comes mainly from Hawaii, Tahiti, Indonesia and Malaysia. High in essential fatty acids, it is wonderful for sensitive skin, mature, damaged, and wrinkled skin. Said to aid in softening and restructuring the skin. A wonderful massage oil, it is said to have been used by the Hawaiians for thousands of years for dry skin, psoriasis and acne. May also be good for sunburned or burned skin.

L

Lavender (Lavandula spp.)
One of the most commonly used essential oils, it is considered safe for babies and those with sensitive skin. This fresh-smelling oil has earned a reputation as being an anti-depressant and has many aromatherapy uses. May also speed recovery from colds, bronchitis, influenza and throat infection. This beautiful flower’s properties include: relaxant, antispasmodic, tonic for the nervous system, antibacterial, analgesic, and antiseptic.

Lavender Oil
Essential oil that relaxes the scalp and may help slow hair loss (alopecia).

Lecithin
Lecithin is derived from egg yolks, soybeans and corn. Has a softening and soothing effect on skin. A natural antioxidant and emollient, lecithin is a super skin restorative agent and moisturizer.

Lemon (Citrus Limonum)
This fruit provides a cooling, refreshing and uplifting feeling as well as having bleaching, exfoliating, and anti-viral properties.

Lemongrass
Relieves stress and insomnia; may be helpful in treating acne.

Lipophilic
Has a great affinity (attraction) for oil.

M

Macadamia Nut Oil (Macadamia integrifolia)
Pressed from the macadamia nut, which is an evergreen tree grown mainly in Hawaii. Macadamia nut oil is similar to sebum, the oil naturally produced by human skin to protect it. It contains magnesium and thiamin and penetrates and hydrates the skin quickly.

Mango Butter (Mangifera Indica)
The Mango tree is a tropical evergreen tree from India and Malaysia. From its seed a firm “butter” is rendered, rich in high quality fatty acids necessary to restore skin tone, elasticity, and reduce degeneration of skin cells. A great moisturizer to soothe, soften and nourish the skin. Also serves as a sunscreen.

Marigold (Calendula officinalis)
This flower is widely used in hair and skincare formulations for its softening and healing properties.

Meadowfoam Seed oil
Very penetrating oil for dry and dehydrated skin. Contains several vitamins and amino acids to replenish the skin. When added to cosmetics and creams, it re-moisturizes the skin in ways no other oil can. In shampoos and soaps it helps add shine moisture to hair and scalp made dry and brittle by the harsh process of daily washing. In lipsticks and balms, it helps revitalize dry, cracked lips and they stay moist longer.

Melanocyte
A cell in the epidermis that produces melanin, a dark-colored pigment that protects the skin from sunlight.

Milk, Powdered (Lactose)
Milk leaves the skin feeling silky smooth with a hydrated appearance. An effective and softening skin cleanser. Milk proteins smooth, firm and soften the skin. Milk is high in hydrophilic (water) and lipophilic (fat) factors and has beneficial vitamins and sugars. It has excellent nutritive value, is packed with proteins, beneficial fats, vitamins, amino acids and calcium. It is easily absorbed into the skin.

Milk, Goat (Lactose)
Lactose from the milk of goats. Goat milk leaves the skin feeling silky smooth with a hydrated appearance.

Mineral Oil
Also known as white oil. This is commonly used in baby lotions and creams as well as in other cosmetic agents. It is odorless, tasteless, and non-toxic. This is a petroleum by-product which can clog your pores. Mineral oil is a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, and not particularly beneficial for any skin type, and yet, because it is cheap and stable from spoilage, is widely used in many skin care products.

Mowrah Butter (Madhuca Latifolia)
From the seed kernels the pulp is extracted and further processed and refined to obtain a yellow/white butter which has a very mild scent. It is solid at room temperature, but melts readily on contact with the skin. Most known to prevent drying of the skin and development of wrinkles, it also reduces degeneration of skin cells and restores skin flexibility.

N

Neem oil (Azadriachta indica)
Neem oil is used widely in India as an anti-bacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiseptic, anti-parasitic agent in toiletries, soap, toothpaste and skin/hair care products. It is also used to treat skin disorders such as eczema, psoriasis, ringworm, scabies, syphilitic sores, chicken pox, etc. It can be used to get rid of lice and control dandruff. In toothpaste, it helps relieve swollen and bleeding gums and kills the bacteria that cause gingivitis. Neem powder can be used in a foot bath powder to kill fungus and bacteria. Mixed with clay, it makes a great facial for those with acne and other skin problems.

Nettle Extract
Said to inhibit the production of DHT (hormone responsible for alopecia hair loss), nettle root extract can be found in a number of popular hair loss treatments. Nettle leaf and root extracts, infusions and oils are used to help reduce and reverse hair loss, improve circulation, remove dandruff, stimulate hair roots, and improve overall skin and scalp conditions.

O

Oat Amino Acids
Amino acids derived from oats. Oats are a rich source of vitamins and minerals, help to soothe the skin, relieve itching, and act as a moisturizer.

Oat Straw
Consists of the dried threshold, leaf and stem of the avena sativa plant. Oat straw has traditionally been used topically for a variety of skin conditions including burns, eczema, acne, dry skin, itching and rashes. It is an emollient and moisturizer which make it useful in skin and hair products.

Olive Butter (Olea europaea)
Derived from olive oil and obtained by cold pressing selected fruits followed by a full refining process. The natural oil inherently contains essential fatty acids, but also contains unsaponifiables as natural waxes/paraffins, which are collected during the refining and deodorization process, and from the squalane production process.

Olive oil (Olea europaea)
Olive oil is obtained by crushing and pressing the fruit of the olive tree. Highly nutritive and stable, olive oil contains protein, minerals, and vitamins with superior penetrating power. Olive oil is high in unsaponifiables, which is a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. They soften the skin, have superior moisturizing effect on the upper layer of the skin and reduce scars. It is considered extremely mild and nourishing for the skin, attracting external moisture and holding it close to the skin to keep it soft, supple, and younger looking.

Orange (Citrus aurantium)
This fruit is loaded with Vitamin C and has astringent properties making it good for oily skin.

P

Pacinian corpuscle
Nerve receptors that respond to pressure and vibration, they are oval capsules of sensory nerve fibers located in the subcutaneous fatty tissue.

Palm oil (Elaesis guineesis)
Palm oil is obtained from the fruit or seed of the palm tree. A rich source of Vitamin A.

Palmitate (Vitamin A)
Palmitate is a mixture of solid organic acids obtained from fats. Vitamin A is an antioxidant that aids in the removal of free radicals that cells produce. Research shows that vitamin A encourages collagen production in the dermis, which causes the middle layers to plump out and efficiently retain moisture.

Palm Kernel Flakes
Containing a high percentage of lauric acid that gives soap a great lathering quality, palm kernel oil is a good moisturizer that absorbs readily into the skin.

Palm Oil
Used in many expensive luxury soaps, palm oil cleans well and gives smooth, creamy bubbles.

Panthenol (Vitamin B Complex)
A vitamin B-complex group which provides conditioning effects after extended and regular use, panthenol is absorbed quickly by the hair to provide moisture regardless of atmospheric conditions. It is also good for human tissues.

Partially Refined
A process where only some of the methods available are employed to produce a manufactured oil. Only one or two of the three available methods are used in a partially refined oil. These include, but are not limited to; deodorization, winterization and natural bleaching. These methods are used for oils which have been known historically to go rancid quickly, and they are also used to further stabilize an oil or remove its heavy odor and deep color.

Peppermint (Essential Oil)
Popular scent, known to reduce headaches, energize and improve alertness. Also a powerful decongestant for colds and flu.

Phenoxyethanol
Phenoxyethanol is a chemical compound with a molecular composition that includes carbon, making it organic. A clear, oily liquid, it is often used in bactericides, solutions that are used to kill bacteria without harming other substances. It is a rose ester preservative with low sensitizing factor.

Phthalates
Phthalates are a family of compounds whose primary use is as a vinyl softener. They are colorless, oily liquids with little or no odor and low volatility. Scents that stay on the skin are synthetic in nature, special chemicals called PHTHALATES are added to make them bond to skin, which is the reason that many synthetic fragrances irritate.

Polyaminopropyl biguanide
Gentle, paraben-free and formaldehyde-free, this preservative is typically used in baby wipes and contact lens solutions, but can be used in skin care creams and lotions, hair conditioners, and other personal care products.

Polysorbate 20
Nonionic, vegetable source; helps solubilize fragrance oils into surfactant based products.

Polysorbate 80
Non ionic detergent & emulsifier derived from sorbitol and oleic acid.

Potassium Sorbate
Potassium sorbate is a potassium salt of sorbic acid, a naturally occurring antimicrobial compound; used as a preservative.

Protein
Proteins consist of giant chains of amino acids, the building blocks of life. The amino acid chains are joined chemically by a peptide bond. Plant proteins have excellent skin compatibility and deposit a protective film on the skin and hair. The film is smoothing and moisturizing. Protein is the major ingredient in hair itself. Your hair is at least 90 percent protein. L-Cysteine (amino acid) speeds up hair growth and increases hair shaft diameter resulting in fuller hair, and also has been reported to facilitate longer hair growth.

Pumpkin Seed Oil
An emollient that is rich in vitamins A, C, E and K and zinc, pumpkin seed oil is also high in unsaturated fatty acids.

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Refined
A fully processed oil where it has been exposed to all methods of refinement including a flash fluctuation in temperature as high as 450 degrees and winterization as low as -30 degrees, deodorization, which removes the heavy and often unsettling odor in oil, and finally bleaching, where natural clays and other mediums are used to alter or remove an oils color, and scent. This makes for an economical oil in cosmetics and body care products, but it is not the healthiest as a food grade oil.

Rice Bran Oil
Rich in antioxidants to protect and moisturize the skin, rice bran oil is rich in gamma-oryzanol, making it a good oil for itching dry skin, and contains squalane and vitamin E. This oil is good for mature, delicate and sensitive skin. It improves skin tone, delays wrinkle formation, and promotes regeneration of healthy skin.

Rose (Rosa spp.)
Beyond this flowers heavenly scent lies its properties: antidepressant, astringent, cleansing, antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, as well as aphrodisiac.

Rose Hip Oil (Rosa mosqueta)
Rose hip oil is extracted from ripened fruit of a hybrid, thorny, wild rosebush native to South American countries. A healing oil that is said to regenerate the skin and counteract the effects of aging, rose hip oil is a rich source of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, gamma linoliec acid (GLA), and vitamin C. Rose hip oil is often used in products made for stretch marks, burns, scars and mature dry skin. Rose hip seed oil is an emollient and strengthens the hair shaft.

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)
This delightfully refreshing scented herb has antibacterial and antifungal properties and is used extensively in hair care products for its tonic properties.

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Safflower Oil (Carthamus tinctoorius)
Safflower oil is from an annual plant that is native to Mediterranean countries. Safflower has one of the highest linoleic acid (70%) contents of all oils and is light and quick to absorb. It helps to moisturize, nourish and restructure the skin.

Sea Buckthorn Oil
Contains the perfect combination of essential fatty acids, with the additional omega-7 rarely found in the plant kingdom. These oils are very important in our diet and help moisturize the scalp and promote healthy hair growth.

Sebaceous Gland
A small, sack-shaped gland that releases oily liquids onto the hair follicle that then lubricate and soften the skin. These glands are located in the dermis, usually next to hair follicles.

Sebum
The oil naturally produced by human skin to protect it.

Sesame Oil (Sesamum inducum)
Made from sesame seeds, sesame oil contains natural antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, proteins, lecithin and amino acids. It is high in unsaponifiables which is a large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins. They soften the skin, have superior moisturizing effect on the upper layer of the skin and reduce scars.

Shea Butter (Butyrospermum parkii)
Shea butter is solid and comes from the natural fat obtained from the karite tree grown in West and Central Africa. Often referred to as karite butter, shea butter is an emollient, it is extremely therapeutic, helping to heal cracked, aged and damaged skin. Shea butter penetrates the skin and leaves it feeling soft and smooth. It contains vitamins C & E and cinnamic acid and is highly compatible with skin.

Shea Nut Oil (Butyrospermum parkii)
During the pressing of the butter from the fruits (seeds) of the karite tree followed by a full refining process, a liquid fraction appears as shea oil , which offers an exceptional skin feel. Shea is well known to assist coetaneous dryness, dermatitis and dermatoses, eczema, solar erythema and burns.

Silica (horsetail)
Short for silicon dioxide, silica is a mineral that helps retain moisture in hair, creating shinier strands. Silica is also used as carrier for emollients, helps improve feel on skin. Silica is a common component of the body and is found in connective tissues, muscle tissue, bone, nails and hair. Silica helps strengthen hair and makes it less likely for hair to become brittle and develop split ends. It also helps to strengthen hair and prevent or reduce hair loss.

Silk Amino Acids
The mixture of amino acids resulting from the complete hydrolysis of silk. Silk amino acids improve skin and hair with regard to feel and gloss, and have a moisturizing effect due to their water-binding properties.

Sodium Bicarbonate (Baking Soda)
Cleans, deodorizes, softens and absorbs moisture. Leaves skin feeling silky smooth in bath preparations, balances pH level and alkalinity, soothes and relieves itching.

Sodium Borate
Sodium Borate, also called borax, occurs naturally as the mineral, tincal. Sodium borate prevents or retards bacterial growth, and thus protects cosmetics and personal care products from spoilage.

Sodium Lactate
A natural salt that is derived from a natural fermentation product: lactic acid. A clear colorless viscous liquid with a mild odor, sodium lactate is also considered to be a natural humectant.

Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
Has an approximate pH of 10 in its concentrated raw material form which is very alkaline and drying to the skin. Earth Science chooses not to use sodium lauryl sulfate. Sodium laureth sulfate, on the other hand, is at an approximate pH of 5.5 in its concentrated raw material form.

Solubilize
To make a substance soluble or more soluble, or become soluble or more soluble.

Sorbitol
Occurs naturally in ripe berries, cherries, plums, pears, apples, seaweed and algae. Used in hair and skin products as a humectant, giving skin and hair a velvety feeling.

Soybean (Glycine Soja) Oil
Soybean oil is produced from the seeds of the soybean plant. It consists primarily of triglycerides of oleic, linoleic and saturated acids. Because it is one of the drier oils, it is also used in paints and as a base for printing inks.

Stearic acid
A popular ingredient in making candles, soaps, and cosmetics, stearic acid is used as an emollient and thickener in lotions and creams.

Stearyl Alcohol
Stearyl alcohol is derived from coconut oil. Because it is an emollient as well as an emulsifier, it can be substituted for cetyl alcohol to firm skin care formulations.

Sugar
Raw sugar, considered an emollient which helps soften and sooth skin. Has a hydrating effect by reducing moisture evaporation from the skin surface. The grain used easily dissolves on the skin while providing excellent exfoliation properties.

Sweat gland
Also called sudoriferous gland, a tube-shaped gland that produces perspiration (sweat). The gland is located in the epidermis; it releases sweat onto the skin.

Sweet Orange (Essential Oil)
Aphrodisiac, good to relieve colic and heartburn. Safe for babies and those with sensitive skin.

Subcutaneous tissue
Fatty tissue located under the dermis.

Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Oil
Obtained from the milling of the seeds from the sunflower. It is rich in both vitamins A, C and E. Sunflower oil is very high in essential fatty acids and helps to moisturize, regenerate and condition the skin. This oil is for all skin types and is easily absorbed. High in vitamin E that keeps skin tissue younger, making it helpful for delicate, dry or mature skin.

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Tea Tree (Essential Oil)
Relieving sore throats, decongestant, acne…and deoderizer—antifungal.

Thyme (Thymus Vulgaris) Essential Oil
This herb is used for its toning, refreshing and disinfectant properties.

Tincture
A solution of a medicinal substance in an alcoholic solvent.

Tocopherol (Vitamin E)
Acts as a free radical scavenger, hinders the oxidizing process in the skin and promotes soft and supple skin. As an antioxidant it defends the skin. Helpful in reducing scars and promotes healing. Acts as a natural preservative for products. Obtained by the vacuum distillation of edible vegetable oils.

Triglycerides
A chemical compound derived from glycerol and three fatty acids. It is the main component of vegetable oil and animal fats.

Turbinado Raw Sugar (Sucrose)
Known as a demulcent, which is a substance used to relieve pain in inflamed or irritated mucous surfaces. A simple organic exfoliating material, this is crystalized sugar from the first step of refinement. It has a tan to brown color from the residual impurities. Made using 100% pure cane sugar, it retains the natural molasses found in the sugar crystals. It is a scrumptious scrub agent for the body. The natural golden color gives your sugar scrub a more natural look than regular white refined sugar.

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Unrefined
A process of mechanical extraction and screen filtering where no additional refining process has taken place. This ensures the finest quality product and makes the oil the most exquisite for food and cosmetic preparation. The unrefined process helps oil retain a rich, strong flavor and color that is true to its natural state. Unrefined oils are always darker in color and richer in scent.

Unsaponifiables
A large group of compounds called plant steroids or sterolins.

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Vegan
Food or product that contains no animal ingredients, products, or byproducts. Forbidden items include meat, poultry, seafood, dairy, eggs, honey, beeswax, bone china, carmine, casein, gelatin, lanolin, lard, rennet, shellac, tallow, whey, ivory, fur, leather, wool, and silk. Most vegans also eliminate use of products that have been tested on animals.

Vitamin A
Vitamin A (Beta Carotene) is essential to hair growth. This is because beta-carotene is converted to vitamin A, as the body needs it. Vitamin A helps maintain normal growth and bone development, protective sheathing around nerve fibers, as well as promoting healthy skin, hair and nails. Vitamin A helps produce healthy sebum in the scalp. A deficiency in Vitamin A will cause dry hair and rough skin.

Vitamin C
Vitamin C is essential for over 300 metabolic reactions in the body, Vitamin C deficiency manifests itself in many ways, but one of the most common ways is dry and brittle hair and skin. An important antioxidant, Vitamin C helps maintain good circulation, flushes toxins from the body and improves the immune system; all of which helps with strong, healthy hair.

Vitamin E
Vitamin E is a powerful antioxidant that helps your body to protect cell membranes and other fat-soluble parts of the body. It is said that it may help increase circulation. Vitamin E increases oxygen uptake, which improves circulation to the scalp and other areas of the body, speeding wound and burn healing, reducing scarring.

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Water, distilled (Aqua)
Water is the most widely used ingredient in cosmetics. Water is distilled by evaporating and then recondensing it to remove all the minerals, bacteria, and other substances.

Wheat Germ Oil (Triticum vulgare)
Wheat germ oil is from the golden germ of the wheat. Rich in vitamins, beta carotene, and vitamin E, it is believed to promote smoother, younger looking skin. Wheat Germ Oil nourishes skin cells to prevent moisture loss.

Witch Hazel (Hamamelis Virginiana)
This is a very common ingredient in various cosmetics and is used as a local anesthetic and astringent. It is made from the twigs and leaves of Hamamelis Virginiana. Witch hazel commonly purchased contains 15 to 20% ethyl alcohol or is left in its original steam distilled form.

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Xanthan Gum (Polysaccharide gum)
Xanthan gum is a polysaccharide (natural sugar) fermented from corn sugar.

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Ylang Ylang (Essential oil)
Ylang Ylang is a fragrance ingredient derived from the distillation of the flowers of the cananga plant. This aromatic essential oil is used to calm breathing and lower high blood pressure. It is also said to soothe nervousness, physical exhaustion, stress, and aid in skin care and hair growth.

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Zinc
Zinc is an essential mineral, vital for growth and development of all the body’s systems. Zinc is responsible for cell production, tissue growth and repair, and the maintenance of the oil-secreting glands of the scalp. It also plays a large role in protein synthesis and collagen formation. For this reason, zinc is important for both hair maintenance and dandruff prevention. Zinc is often associated with hair regrowth and used to help prevent and treat hair loss. Copper also works along with zinc. Severe zinc deficiency in humans has been shown to produce baldness and scalp problems that were reversed when zinc was returned to the diet. Zinc is also believed to boost the immune system, a great side effect. As with other essential nutrients, high stress levels as well as a lack of the nutrient in the diet can cause zinc deficiency.

Zinc Oxide (Flowers of Zinc)
Used medicinally as an astringent, antiseptic, skin protectant, zinc oxide encourages healing and works as an antiperspirant. Zinc oxide is a protective substance which can be used as a sun block and provides near complete opacification to the sun’s rays.